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how to install theme from 'opendesktop.org'


KDE - Oct 23 2011
answered
Question:I can download theme,but can't install
(configure,make,make install). So how do I specifically do this? thank you...




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Answer:There's a very good channel on youtube on tutorial giving introduction and installation procedure on different types of Linux themes. I think you'll find that helpful.

http://www.youtube.com/wethepenguins01




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 Not that easy to answer.

 
 by Aiwendil on: Oct 23 2011
 
Score 50%

Sorry, can't give a simple answer to this one. So please excuse if I repeat some infos you already know right now.

Okay...assuming you downloaded to file and know where you saved it. Next you are going to need a shell ("konsole"-application in KDE).

First I recommend creating some directory for compiling source packages.
Quote:

cd
mkdir compile

The first "cd" (change directory) isn't really necessary in a newly started shell...it just makes sure you are in your home directory ("cd" without any argument takes you to your home directory)
The "mkdir" (make directory) creates a new directory "compile".

Now we change to this directory with
Quote:

cd compile

(depending on the setup of your shell the prompt might change to show the current directory)

Time to unpack the file you downloaded.
Quote:

tar xf <directory-you-saved-the-file>/<filename>

(So...if you downloaded a file "foo.tar.bz2" and saved it in <home>/Downloads it would be "tar xf ~/Downloads/foo.tar.bz2" ("~" is always your home directory). And just a bit more about tar...not that it is necessary but I like hearing myself "talk" ;). *.tar files are just concatenation of other files...no compressing was done. Historically this comes from the circumstance that magnetic tape backup systems allowed only backup a single file...so the tar program was used to stuff all files in one. Nowadays this is still pretty useful because "tar" can be used to make a single file out of a lot others which afterwards can be compressed with bzip2 or gzip. That's the reason why linux archives usually end in either .tar.gz or .tar.bz2. It just means "Files put in one tar archive and then compressed with gzip/bzip2). For extracting those files again tar has the "x" option. And the "f" option tells tar next comes the filename of the archive to extract.

So..now hopefully you ended up with another directory in your "compile" directory containing the source of the program you want to install. Change to that directory with "cd <directory-name>" again. Oh...a good time to mention tab-completion of the shell...try typing "cd" followed by the first two letters of the created directory then hit <tab>...if there is only one possible option the shell with complete the two letters you typed to the full name...if there are more options and second <tab> will give a list of all options.

Okay...now we are in the directory containing the source-code. Before trying to start "configure" I would recommend looking for some README file (or something names similar..like readme.linux). In a shell you can list as files in your current directory with "ls". If you find some readme file you can either read in within the shell with "less <readme-file-name>" (leave less again <q>) or if you prefer a more graphical solution open it for example in kwrite with "kwrite <readme-file-name>" (Don't forget tab-completion: "kwri<tab> RE<tab>" ;)). The readme files often give some good hints on how to install some software and mention what other packages need to be installed on your system for the program to work.

Okay...you read the README and think you are ready for the real game? ;) Fine...let's start. As you already mentioned "configure" is the first step. In the shell again:
Quote:

./configure

The leading "./" are necessary as you can't just start programs from your current directory. That's mainly for security reasons so that nobody can just create a executable with the name of a often used shell command and put in in a directory in hope someone will call it accidentally. To prevent this linux normally only looks for executables in the directories specified in the PATH environment variable. If you care curious you can check which directories with "echo $PATH". What we do with putting "./" in front of "configure" is giving the exact location of the program we want to execute. "." always refers to the current directory...so "./configure" means "start configure from the current directory...ugh..and didn't mention it above..so will do that now: "/" is the sign to separate directories in unix (In fact I think that's the sign for almost every operating system..I can only think of one right now that uses a different slash there. Even in URLs "/" is used.).

Okay...sorry..but now the real work starts...and also the part I can't be much of a help without further information. I'm pretty sure "./configure" will fail. Important is why it fails. Configure will print a lot of messages about the setup of your system and installed programs/libraries. If something is missing that is needed on order to compile this program configure will stop and write an error.

First off you will for sure need the general development package of your distribution (at least I thought most distributions have some kind of meta package in their package manager installing gcc (compiler), ld (linker) autoconf utilities (the stuff needed to make configure work at all) and the header files of the system libraries.). Also most distributions split their packages in application and development packages. This makes sense somehow as most people will never need the development packages...but in case you want to compile something that needs another packages you will need them. The development packages usually contain stuff like header files...which are needed by sourcecode to compile. So if "configure" breaks for example saying libXML2 is missing but it's installed according to your package manager make sure that libXML-dev (or however your package manager calls the development packages) is installed also. Sorry...can't really give much more help about this step without knowing what package you want to install...and what error "configure" failed at.

The "make" step. Oh..great...configure completed? Next is actually building/compiling the code you downloaded. This is done with a simple "make" in shell. "make" is a tool for coders to setup a build environment including several source-code files....the benefit for the user is that instead of compiling each files and linking them manually all you have to do to compile a program is type "make". If you are lucky this will finish without errors...if not, sorry, not much I can do without knowing what error you ran into. And if you have errors in this stage it's maybe a better idea to contact to author of the program about help (or if there is a webpage for the project use the forums / IRC channels). Compile errors can be tricky...most of the time I run into them it's a slightly different version of a library I have on my system causing them.

The last step..."make install". Mhh...after "make" finished without any errors you can install the program with "make install". Till now I haven't seen this stage fail more than a few times..so this usually should work out fine. But there is one thing to mention about this...If not specified different during the "./configure" stage the application gets installed into /usr/local. This is fine in most cases as this keeps everything your compile yourself separated from the precompiled applications of your distribution (which usually are installed in /usr). I just mention this as compiling your own programs also means you are responsible for getting rid of them again. The package manager of your distribution knows nothing about them...so can't uninstall them. If you want to get rid of them you have to do it yourself...and that's done by deleting the files in /usr/local belonging to this package. In case of a theme this might be still easy...but in case of other applications this soon gets pretty tricky as applications install files in several subdirs in /usr/local and it's really hard to figure out what files belong to which program you installed. You saying this as a warning.

So...hope this wasn't too too much ;). Feel free to ask if my explanations are unclear...or give some more information about your current problem to get more specific help on it.


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 Re: Not that easy to answer.

 
 by Aiwendil on: Oct 23 2011
 
Score 50%

Arrrrg...I know I'm a security nightmare...and that working as root is very, very stupid. But still I do it far to often...so of course I forgot to mention something very important in the post above. The "./configure" and the "make" step can be done as ordinary user...but the "make install" step must be either done as root/admin (as only root is allowed to write to /usr/local) or via "sudo make install" ("sudo" executes the following command with root-rights). In Kubuntu you only have the sudo option I think as ubuntu disallows root login at all I think.


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